There may be several inter-related issues:
1. I have Browser History->Temporary Internet Files set to Check for newer versions Every time I visit a page. I've also tried Automatically. My setting stays, unlike some seeing a flip-flop of the setting.
2. In F12 Developer Tools, Cache setting "Always refresh from server" is greyed out and cannot be changed. It doesn't seem to matter if Protected Mode is on or off. I consider this another problem, but included here, since it might be related to, or the cause of, my browser back problem.
3. I have checked Syncmode5 and it correctly reflects Every time I visit a page.
When I visit the https://transparentct.com website on my new (one month old) Windows 8 IE10 machine, information messages and updates to web pages are not refreshed when I browser back to the page. For instance, from the Home page, if I navigate to another page to set a preference that will be reflected on the Home page, and then browser back to the Home page, the preference change is not visible. If I manually refresh or select Home from the menu, then the page is updated and the change is visible. And it's not just by going one page away. I can go numerous pages, and then traverse back to the original page via browser back, and the content is still stale. With Vista / IE 8 and Windows 7 / IE 8 on this site, this is not an issue. I have tried compatibility view for the domain, as well as IE 7, IE 8 and IE 9 emulation modes on this machine, to no avail.
I don't think this problem is specific to this particular website, but I can't think of a site where I can predict that the page should have changed while I was "away" on other pages within the site.