When passing -ConfigurationData to a configuration, the AllNodes key should be populated into an AllNodes variable for evaluation (per the DSC cheat sheet).
This doesn't appear to happen. $AllNodes is not populated as an automatic variable
This problem is compounded in the Nodes function in PSDesiredSTateConfiguration.psm1.
On line 401, there is a guard check to see if $Name is null and if so exit. If you are passing $allnodes.NodeName (or some filtered version thereof), this $name is null, so it never gets to creating a node map from the $configurationData.