A Connect item about this topic created by John Bell:
It was closed by design with an understandable explanation. However in my tests, I've found more than it was mentioned in that Connect item.
When TDE is enabled and disabled, SQL Server 2014 SP2 and SQL Server 2016 SP1 yield different results with sys.databases and sys.dm_database_encryption_keys catalog views. SQL Server 2014 SP2 has its own problems and SQL Server 2016 SP1 has its own. The problems are reproducable and I'm sharing the details with this Connect item.