A lot of people have complained that if they have a query window open, and in that query window add a column to a table or create a new table, subsequent queries using IntelliSense do not recognize the change. Of course this is because the local metadata cache is stale, and needs to be refreshed using Ctrl+Shift+R or Edit > IntelliSense > Refresh Local Cache.
If you look at items like #363883, #336481, #360585, in each case Eric Kang has posted a comment, basically having to tell people what the keyboard combination is, because they clearly haven't found the menu option. I think this is for several reasons:
(a) "Refresh Local Cache" is not documented in Books Online. At all. I would expect this SSMS menu option to be documented somewhere, especially at the keyboard shortcut page:
But no, it is not there. I did find CTRL+SHIFT+R under 2000 keyboard scheme, but this is for uncommenting and has nothing to do with IntelliSense obviously.
(b) As I complained in #342260, keyboard shortcuts like CTRL+SHIFT+R are not listed under Tools/Options/Environment/Keyboard, where other shortcuts like F1 are defined.
(c) The menu option is in a really weird place; in fact, probably the LAST place I would have looked.