When attempting to call sp_article_validation on a replicated table with a row count of 10 billion rows or more, the following error is thrown:
Generated expected rowcount value of 11869637364 for <table name>
Msg 8115, Level 16, State 2, Procedure sp_MSarticle_validation, Line 231
Arithmetic overflow error converting expression to data type varchar.
Results for articles with over 10 billion rows are then not logged in MSdistribution_history.
It's been determined that sp_MSarticle_validation is converting @actual_rowcount (a bigint) to varchar(10) instead of varchar(19).