If a project contains full paths, rather than relative paths, to source files, those files will not be individually compilable in the IDE (Build>Compile).
A full solution build (Build>Build Solution) is successful.
Note about included sample project: It was generated by the project wizard, then I modified the test.vcxproj file to use a full path to test.cpp. Line 90 was changed from this:
<ClCompile Include="test.cpp" />
<ClCompile Include="C:\test\test\test.cpp" />
This hand-editing simulates the way some project generators (e.g. CMake) create project files.